The LAW Corpus


·         Simultaneous and successive bi/trilingual acquisition of Mandarin, English and Cantonese in three U.S.-born Chinese children.

·         Nurturing infant bi/trilingualism involving a heritage language, a majority language and/or a heritage dialect in English-dominant contexts.

           To use the data from the LAW Corpus, please cite:

          Mai, Z., Matthews, S. & Yip, V. (in prep) Heritage Chinese in English contexts: the Child Heritage Chinese Corpus.


Children in the LAW corpus

The Luna corpus

Luna was born in New York in 2011. She is the first-born of the family. She has been exposed to Mandarin Chinese at home since birth and English in nursery and preschool since she was 0;09. Her parents are professionals who are native speakers of Mandarin and speak English fluently as their second language. Both of them come from mainland China, the mother from a Cantonese-speaking city in southern China, and the father from the north. They had completed their first degrees in natural sciences and engineering in prestigious universities in Beijing before they arrived in the United States to pursue doctoral degrees. At home, the parents address Luna almost exclusively in Mandarin with only occasional switches to English. Before the age of 0;09, Luna was primarily taken care of by her parents and her maternal grandparents, who also addressed Luna in Mandarin. From 0;09 to 3;00, Luna spent approximately seven hours a day during weekdays at a local daycare, where English was the language between staff members and between staff and the infants. The family relocated to Maryland when Luna was 3;01, where Luna attended an English-medium pre-school from 3;02 to 5;08, and she was particularly close to the Chinese-speaking children in her class. Spanish was introduced to Luna by her school teachers in her pre-school when she was 3;02, with one hour of exposure per week. Luna is now attending first grade (Kindergarten) in an elementary school in Maryland. She has taken a few month-long trips outside the US before 4;11 (age of the last recording in this release), most of them to China visiting friends and family in major cities. Luna had a little sister when she was 4;03, and the parents have adhered to the Mandarin-only policy to address both girls at home. Mandarin is the language of communication between Luna and her sister.

Regular recording of Luna began in 2013 at age 2;00 and still continued at the time of writing. On the initial launch of Luna’s corpus, the transcripts of the speech data from 2;00 to 4;11 will be released. From 2;00 to 4;01, Luna was video-recorded by her parents at home at weekly or bi-weekly intervals. From 3;10 to 4;11, Luna was invited to interact with our research staff at CUHK via Skype at regular intervals. The Skype sessions, both audio and video, were recorded using Camtasia by the researchers. The Skype sessions were scheduled for the early mornings of Hong Kong and early evenings of Maryland. Most of them were 40-60 minutes in duration, evenly divided into a Mandarin session, where Luna interacted with a Mandarin-speaking researcher in Mandarin, and an English session, where the same or another research assistant, who spoke English as their second language, elicited English from Luna. The Skype sessions consisted of child-friendly activities including story-telling, role play, games with toys and free chat. The Mandarin and English sessions were later split into different files in transcription and tagging. To compensate for data loss due to unstable connections in web-based calls, Luna’s mother, who observed all of the Skype calls, audio-recorded the Skype conversations on another device (e.g. smartphone, sound recorder). The transcription of Skype sessions was done based on the audio recordings provided by the parents and checked against the Camtasia recordings, in cases where the speakers’ utterances were unintelligible due to unstable internet connection. To address the parents’ requests to protect the family’s privacy, only the transcripts and corresponding audio recordings, some of them converted from video recordings, is released. In sum, the initial release of the Luna corpus contains 13 hours and 22 minutes’ recordings of Luna interacting with parents at home from 2;00-4;01, and 13 hours and 29 minutes’ recordings of Luna interacting with researchers via Skype from 3;10-4;11 (4 hours 56 minutes in Mandarin, 8 hours and 33 minutes in English), totalling 26 hours and 51 minutes.

To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal corpus documenting a child’s language development drawing on web-based data collection methods. In Mai and Yip (2017), Zhu, Mai and Yip (2018) and Yip, Mai and Matthews (2018), we demonstrated how the skype sessions are conducted and discussed the methodological issues that this method gives rise to. Compared to traditional home recordings, web-based data collection incurs lower costs and offers greater flexibility. It is transformational for the study of heritage bilingualism, as a critical question in the field is how knowledge of one’s mother tongue is acquired under less-than-optimal conditions in childhood and subsequently maintained or attrited later in life. Web-based data recording enables us to collect the heritage children’s speech data by crossing location barriers: Hong Kong based researchers are able to interact with the US-based heritage children and make recordings of the data, supplementing traditional recordings normally conducted by home visits.

The Avia corpus

Avia was born in Ann Arbor, MI in 2012, and currently lives with her parents in Seattle, WA. Her mother, originally from northern China, arrived in the United States with her parents when she was five, and had spoken Chinese on a daily basis with her parents until she attended college. At the time of recording, Avia’s mother was fluent in both Mandarin and English, with stronger abilities in English than in Mandarin, especially on professional topics and formal registers. Avia’s father is American, with English as his first and dominant language. Both parents are professionals with doctoral degrees in engineering. With strong convictions in the necessity and possibility of passing on the Chinese heritage to Avia and the linguistic and cognitive benefits of early childhood bilingualism, the parents adopt the “one parent-one language” principle in their interaction with Avia, with the mother exclusively speaking Mandarin, and the father speaking English. The language between the parents is English. Avia has a younger brother, who is three years younger than her. The parents observed that Avia mainly spoke Mandarin with her brother, mixed with some English. Before the age of 2;05, Avia was taken care of mainly by her parents and a Mandarin-speaking au pair. From 2;05 to 4;11, Avia attended a bilingual daycare, where Mandarin was the dominant language, three days per week for eight hours a day, followed by an English-medium local elementary school after 4;11. Avia lived in the US continuously throughout the period of recording, apart from brief visits to mainland China (4 weeks in total by 4;11).

The Avia corpus contains 19 hours of video recordings documenting Avia’s interaction with her parents from 2;0 to 3;11 in the home setting (15 hours in Mandarin with the mother and 4 hours in English with the father). They were recorded by Avia’s parents at 2-3 week intervals from 2014 to 2016, and transcribed and tagged in CLAN (MacWhinney, 2000) by our research team.

The Winston corpus

Winston was born in Boston, MA in 2012, and moved to Seattle, WA with his parents at the age of 0;04. Similar to Luna, Winston’s parents had completed their first degrees in science and engineering in prestigious universities in Beijing before they arrived in the United States to pursue doctoral degrees. Both are highly proficient in English and use English on a daily basis in the workplace. Unlike Luna, Winston’s parents grew up bilingually in Guangzhou, a Cantonese-speaking city in southern China, speaking both Cantonese (Guangzhou) and Mandarin with family and friends, and are determined to pass on both Cantonese and Mandarin to Winston. At home, Winston’s mother speaks Cantonese to Winston while his father speaks Mandarin most of the time. Winston’s younger brother was born when he was 3;08. The maternal and paternal grandparents played a major role in taking care of the children. They addressed the children in Cantonese and Mandarin 70% and 30% of the time respectively. In addition, the family hired a Mandarin-speaking domestic helper for four months (0;07-0;10) and a Cantonese-speaking one for ten months (2;05-3;02), who had daily interactions with Winston in the respective languages. Winston also met with an English tutor for 2-3 hours per week starting from 5;00.

Winston attended a monolingual English nursery for a month from 1;08 to 1;09, and switched to an international Montessori nursery at 1;09. In the latter Winston was first enrolled in a “quadrilingual programme”, in which he was exposed to Mandarin, Japanese, Spanish and English for fourteen months from 1;10 to 3;00, and then a “bilingual programme” (English and Mandarin) from 3;00 to 4;04. At 4;04, Winston started attending a preschool where English is used as the sole language of instruction. In each school, Winston spends six hours at school on weekdays. For Winston’s parents, developing relatively balanced abilities in Cantonese, Mandarin and Cantonese is one of the most important considerations in choosing Winston’s school and after-school activities, as well as domestic helpers and tutors. The parents have observed and monitored Winston’s language development closely and adjusted the amount of input in English, Mandarin, and Cantonese accordingly. Winston is attending an English-medium elementary school for gifted children at the time of writing.

Winston’s parents started to record their interactions with Winston in Cantonese and Mandarin weekly at home when Winston was 1;00. Like Luna, we collected Winston’s speech data in English via Skype interactions, which started when Winston was 3;00 on a weekly and then bi-weekly basis. For this release, there is a total of 22 hours and 24 minutes of recordings, covering Winston’s development in Cantonese, Mandarin and English from 1;07 to 3;07. In Mai, Wu, Wong, Law and Yip (2018), we have discussed the combined roles of cross-linguistic influence and input frequency by examining the development of the zoeng-construction.

Audio Highlights

Here are some linguistically interesting highlights, selected from the audio documentation of Luna, Avia and Winston interacting with adults.


  1. Luna producing a non-target-like Mandarin passive resembling the word order of English passive [Patient-be-V-ed-by Agent]

*MAG: 这 是 干吗 呀 ?

%mor:  pro|zhe4=this v:cop|shi4=is adv:wh|gan4ma=why sfp|ya ?

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|PRED 4|2|SFP 5|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   他们 石头 爷爷 , 因为 Anna@s:eng 伤害 Elsa@s:eng .

%mor:  co|a pro|ta1-PL=he v|zhao3=search n|shi2tou=stone adj|lao3=old

n:relat|ye2&DIM=grandfather cm|cm conj|yin1wei4=because L2|Anna

prep|bei4=by v|shang1hai4=injure asp|le L2|Elsa .

%gra:   1|11|COM 2|3|SUBJ 3|11|JCT 4|11|SUBJ 5|11|MOD 6|11|SUBJ 7|11|JCT

8|11|JCT 9|11|JCT 10|11|JCT 11|0|ROOT 12|11|OBJ 13|11|OBJ 14|11|PUNCT

*MAG: 哦 Elsa@s:eng 不 小心 伤害 了 Anna@s:eng 是不是 [<] ?

%mor:  co|o1=chant L2|Elsa neg|bu4=not v|xiao3xin1=beware

n|shang1hai4=harm asp|le L2|Anna tag|shi4bu2shi4=right ?

%gra:   1|4|COM 2|4|JCT 3|4|NEG 4|0|ROOT 5|6|MOD 6|4|OBJ 7|6|INCROOT 8|7|COM


*CHI:   对 [>] .

%mor:  tag|dui4=correct .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT


  1. Luna producing a non-target-like Mandarin verb phrase with post-verbal indirect argument, possibly influenced by the corresponding verb phrase in English.

*CHI:   <你 有 没 有> [//] 你 知 不 知道 那个 人 是 什么 呀 ?

%mor:  pro|ni3=you v|zhi1=tell neg|bu4=not v|zhi1dao4=know pro|na4ge4=that

n|ren2=person v:cop|shi4=is pro:wh|shen2me=what sfp|ya ?

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|4|SUBJ 3|4|NEG 4|0|ROOT 5|6|MOD 6|4|OBJ 7|4|ROOT 8|7|OBJ

9|4|SFP 10|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   然后 他 有 两 个 lightsaber@s 插 在 一 [/] 一起 .

%mor:  adv|ran2hou4=thereupon pro|ta1=he v|you3=have num|liang3=two cl|ge4

L2|lightsaber v|cha1=insert prep|zai4=at adv|yi1qi3=together .

%gra:   1|3|JCT 2|3|SUBJ 3|7|CJCT 4|3|PQ 5|7|SUBJ 6|7|JCT 7|0|ROOT 8|7|JCT

9|8|PREPO 10|7|PUNCT

*MAG: 有 两 个 <lightsaber@s 插 在 一起> [>] .

%mor:  v|you3=have num|liang3=two cl|ge4 L2|lightsaber v|cha1=insert

prep|zai4=at adv|yi1qi3=together .

%gra:   1|5|COM 2|1|PQ 3|5|SUBJ 4|5|JCT 5|0|ROOT 6|5|JCT 7|6|PREPO 8|5|PUNCT

*CHI:   < , 然后 > [<] , 知道 [/] 那个 好人 , 这样 [=! kicking] .

%mor:  tag|dui4=correct cm|cm adv|ran2hou4=thereupon pro|ni3=you

v|kan4=look cm|cm pro|wo3=I v|zhi1dao4=know pro|ta1=he v|gan4=do

pro:wh|sha2=what cl|dui4=pair pro|na4ge4=that n|hao3ren2=good_person

cm|cm pro|ta1=he adv|jiu4=just adv|zhe4yang4=so .

%gra:   1|5|COM 2|5|SUBJ 3|5|JCT 4|5|SUBJ 5|0|ROOT 6|8|COM 7|8|SUBJ 8|5|OBJ

9|10|SUBJ 10|8|SRL 11|10|OBJ 12|8|JCT 13|14|MOD 14|18|TOP 15|18|COM

16|18|SUBJ 17|18|JCT 18|12|PREPO 19|5|PUNCT


  1. Luna producing an English what-question with “what” in-situ.

*SOP:   what is he doing ?

%mor:  pro:int|what cop|be&3S pro:sub|he part|do-PRESP ?

%gra:   1|2|LINK 2|0|ROOT 3|4|SUBJ 4|2|PRED 5|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   can’t run away , because a big snowman like can’t go away fast .

%mor:  mod|can~neg|not part|run&PASTP adv|away cm|cm conj|because

det:art|a adj|big n|+n|snow+n|man prep|like mod|can~neg|not v|go

adv|away adv|fast .

%gra:   1|3|AUX 2|1|NEG 3|0|ROOT 4|3|JCT 5|3|LP 6|13|LINK 7|9|DET 8|9|MOD

9|13|SUBJ 10|13|JCT 11|13|AUX 12|11|NEG 13|3|CJCT 14|13|JCT 15|13|JCT


*SOP:   ah , okay [/] okay .

%mor:  co|ah cm|cm adj|okay .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|LP 3|1|ENUM 4|1|PUNCT

*SOP:   oh next page .

%mor:  co|oh adj|next n|page .

%gra:   1|3|COM 2|3|MOD 3|0|INCROOT 4|3|PUNCT

*CHI:   look he’s doing what .

%mor:  cop|look pro:sub|he~aux|be&3S part|do-PRESP pro:int|what .

%gra:   1|4|LINK 2|4|SUBJ 3|4|AUX 4|0|ROOT 5|4|OBJ 6|4|PUNCT


  1. Luna producing two non-target-like English relative clauses lacking the relative pronoun.

*MAG: what is this man doing ?

%mor:  pro:int|what cop|be&3S pro:dem|this n|man part|do-PRESP ?

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|4|DET 4|2|PRED 5|4|XMOD 6|2|PUNCT

*MAG: is he sleeping ?

%mor:  cop|be&3S pro:sub|he part|sleep-PRESP ?

%gra:   1|3|LINK 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|3|PUNCT

*CHI:   yeah , the guy is purple is good .

%mor:  co|yeah cm|cm det:art|the n|guy cop|be&3S adj|purple cop|be&3S

adj|good .

%gra:   1|5|COM 2|1|LP 3|4|DET 4|5|SUBJ 5|0|ROOT 6|5|PRED 7|6|CMOD 8|7|PRED


*CHI:   the guy is red is not good , is bad .

%mor:  det:art|the n|guy cop|be&3S adj|red aux|be&3S neg|not adj|good

cm|cm aux|be&3S adj|bad .

%gra:   1|2|DET 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|3|PRED 5|7|AUX 6|5|NEG 7|4|CMOD 8|7|LP

9|7|ENUM 10|9|PRED 11|3|PUNCT


  1. Luna producing ba-sentences with a range of lexical verb phrases in Mandarin.


*CHI:   <然后 [/] 然后> [<] 车车 .

%mor:  adv|ran2hou4=thereupon neg|bu4=not v:aux|zhun3=allow

prep|ba3=object_marker adj|da4=great n|che1&DIM=vehicle v|nong4=make

v:resc|huai4=spoil asp|le .

%gra:   1|7|JCT 2|3|NEG 3|7|SUBJ 4|7|JCT 5|6|MOD 6|4|PREPO 7|0|ROOT 8|7|VR

9|7|COM 10|7|PUNCT

*CHI:   听 到 没 有 啦 ?

%mor:  v|ting1=listen v:resc|dao4=arrive neg|mei2=not v|you3=have sfp|la1 ?

%gra:   1|4|CJCT 2|1|VR 3|4|NEG 4|0|ROOT 5|4|SFP 6|4|PUNCT

*FAT:   嗯 .

%mor:  co|en1=okay .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   听 [/] 听 到 没 有 ?

%mor:  v|ting1=listen v:resc|dao4=arrive neg|mei2=not v|you3=have ?

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|1|VR 3|4|NEG 4|0|ROOT 5|4|PUNCT



*CHI:   , 爸爸 怎么 这个 ?

%mor:  sfp|ya cm|cm n:relat|ba4&DIM=father pro|ni3=you adv:wh|zen3me=how

prep|ba3=object_marker pro|zhe4ge4=this v|chai1=separate asp|le

sfp|ya ?

%gra:   1|8|SUBJ 2|8|JCT 3|8|COM 4|8|SUBJ 5|8|JCT 6|8|JCT 7|6|PREPO 8|0|ROOT

9|8|OBJ 10|8|SFP 11|8|PUNCT

*FAT:   什么 拆 了 ?

%mor:  adv:wh|shen2me=what v|chai1=separate asp|le ?

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|OBJ 4|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   这个 洗手间 .

%mor:  pro|zhe4ge4=this n|xi3shou3jian1=toilet .

%gra:   1|2|MOD 2|0|INCROOT 3|2|PUNCT

*FAT:   洗手间 ?

%mor:  n|xi3shou3jian1=toilet ?

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   嗯 .

%mor:  co|en1=okay .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT



*MOT: 傻 笑 啥 呢 ?

%mor:  adj|sha3=stupid v|xiao4=smile pro:wh|sha2=what sfp|ne ?

%gra:   1|2|JCT 2|0|ROOT 3|2|OBJ 4|2|SFP 5|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   这个 这里 , 然后 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I prep|ba3=object_marker pro|zhe4ge4=this v|fang4=put

v:dirc|jin4=enter post|zhe4li3=here cm|cm adv|ran2hou4=thereupon

pro|wo3=I adv|jiu4=just adj|le4=happy .

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|4|JCT 3|2|PREPO 4|0|ROOT 5|4|VD 6|4|VD 7|4|VD 8|4|VD 9|4|VD

10|11|JCT 11|4|VD 12|4|PUNCT

*MOT: 你 就 乐 了 ?

%mor:  pro|ni3=you adv|jiu4=just adj|le4=happy asp|le ?

%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|JCT 3|0|INCROOT 4|3|COM 5|3|PUNCT

*FAT:   乐 了 ?

%mor:  adj|le4=happy asp|le ?

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|SFP 3|1|PUNCT



*MOT: 嗯 , 你 跟 她 说 天气 好 的 时候 咱们 就 去 好不好 ?

%mor:  co|en1=okay cm|cm pro|ni3=you prep|gen1=with pro|ta1=she

v|shuo1=say n|tian1qi4=sky adj|hao3=good poss|de n|shi2hou4=time

pro|zan2-PL=we adv|jiu4=just v:dirc|qu4=go tag|hao3bu2hao3=okay ?

%gra:   1|10|COM 2|10|MOD 3|10|SUBJ 4|10|MOD 5|4|PREPO 6|7|MOD 7|4|PREPO

8|4|PREPO 9|4|POSS 10|0|INCROOT 11|14|SUBJ 12|14|JCT 13|12|VD 14|10|COM


*CHI:   要不然 时候 我们 生病 .

%mor:  conj|yao4bu4ran2=otherwise adj|leng3=cool nom|de n|shi2hou4=time

v:aux|hui4=will prep|ba3=object_marker pro|wo3-PL=I v|gao3=work

v|sheng1bing4=come_down nom|de .

%gra:   1|9|JCT 2|4|MOD 3|4|MOD 4|1|OBJ 5|9|SUBJ 6|9|JCT 7|8|SUBJ 8|6|PREPO

9|0|ROOT 10|9|POSS 11|9|PUNCT

*MOT: 对 了 .

%mor:  tag|dui4=correct asp|le .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|SFP 3|1|PUNCT

*MOT: 哎哟 , 真 聪明 宝贝儿 [>] .

%mor:  co|ai1yo1=arrgh cm|cm adv|zhen1=really adj|cong1ming2=intelligent

n|bao3bei4-DIA=treasure .

%gra:   1|5|COM 2|5|MOD 3|5|JCT 4|5|MOD 5|0|INCROOT 6|5|PUNCT

*CHI:   <搞 生病> [<] 要 看 [/] 看 牙医 了 .

%mor:  v|gao3=work v|sheng1bing4=come_down v:aux|yao4=should v|kan4=look

n|ya2yi1=dentist asp|le .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|6|CJCT 3|5|AUX 4|5|MOD 5|2|OBJ 6|0|INCROOT 7|6|PUNCT


  1. Luna producing long and short passives in Mandarin.


*MOT: 我 揍揍 了 啊 , 你 要 再 这 样子 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I v|zou4&DIM=beat asp|le co|a cm|cm pro|ni3=you

v:aux|yao4=should adv|zai4=again pro|zhe4=this

n|yang4-NOM=appearance .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|OBJ 4|2|COM 5|10|MOD 6|10|SUBJ 7|10|MOD 8|10|JCT

9|10|DET 10|2|OBJ 11|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   会儿 警察 叔叔 .

%mor:  v|dai1=stay n|hui4-DIA=meeting prep|bei4=by n|jing3cha2=policeman

n:relat|shu2&DIM=uncle v|zhua1=catch v:dirc|zou3=go_away asp|le .

%gra:   1|2|MOD 2|6|SUBJ 3|6|JCT 4|5|MOD 5|3|PREPO 6|0|ROOT 7|6|VD 8|6|VD


*MOT: 对 呀 , 你 再 调皮 警察 叔叔 把 你 抓 走 了 .

%mor:  tag|dui4=correct sfp|ya cm|cm pro|ni3=you adv|zai4=again

adj|tiao2pi2=naughty n|jing3cha2=policeman n:relat|shu2&DIM=uncle

prep|ba3=object_marker pro|ni3=you v|zhua1=catch v:dirc|zou3=go_away

asp|le .

%gra:   1|11|SUBJ 2|1|SFP 3|11|JCT 4|8|SUBJ 5|8|JCT 6|8|MOD 7|8|MOD 8|11|SUBJ

9|11|JCT 10|9|PREPO 11|0|ROOT 12|11|VD 13|11|VD 14|11|PUNCT



*FAT:   咦 , 蛋糕 到 哪儿 去 了 呀 ?

%mor:  co|yi2=disapproval cm|cm n|dan4gao1=cake prep|dao4=up_until

pro:wh|na3-DIA=which v:dirc|qu4=go asp|le sfp|ya ?

%gra:   1|3|COM 2|3|MOD 3|4|TOP 4|0|INCROOT 5|4|PREPO 6|4|VD 7|4|PREPO 8|4|SFP


*FAT:   都 不 见 了 吧 .

%mor:  adv|dou1=all neg|bu4=not v:resc|jian4=see asp|le sfp|ba .

%gra:   1|2|JCT 2|4|NEG 3|2|VR 4|0|INCROOT 5|4|SFP 6|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   蚂蚁 .

%mor:  prep|bei4=by n|ma3yi3=ant v|ban1=move v:dirc|zou3=go_away asp|le .

%gra:   1|3|JCT 2|1|PREPO 3|0|ROOT 4|3|VD 5|3|VD 6|3|PUNCT



*CHI:   [//] 妈妈 , 要是 [/] 风筝 那个 底下 , [/] < > [/]

            生气 .

%mor:  n:relat|ma1&DIM=mother cm|cm conj|yao4shi4=if pro|wo3=I poss|de

n|feng1zheng1=kite prep|bei4=by v|chan2=twine v:resc|dao4=arrive

pro|na4ge4=that post|di3xia4=under asp|le cm|cm pro|wo3=I

adv|jiu4=just neg|bie2=dont v|ku1=cry neg|bie2=dont

v|sheng1qi4=get_angry .

%gra:   1|8|SUBJ 2|8|JCT 3|8|JCT 4|8|SUBJ 5|8|JCT 6|8|SUBJ 7|8|JCT 8|17|COM

9|8|VR 10|17|SUBJ 11|17|JCT 12|17|JCT 13|17|COM 14|17|SUBJ 15|17|JCT

16|17|NEG 17|0|ROOT 18|19|NEG 19|17|OBJ 20|17|PUNCT

*CHI:   我 就 叫 爸 说 [/] 说 +”/.

%mor:  pro|wo3=I adv|jiu4=just v|jiao4=call n:relat|ba4=father v|shuo1=say


%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|JCT 3|0|ROOT 4|5|SUBJ 5|3|OBJ 6|3|PUNCT

*CHI:   +” 爸爸 , 爸爸 .

%mor:  n:relat|ba4&DIM=father cm|cm n:relat|ba4&DIM=father .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|3|MOD 3|1|OBJ 4|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   然后 爸爸 就 给 我 解 开 , 啊 .

%mor:  adv|ran2hou4=thereupon n:relat|ba4&DIM=father adv|jiu4=just

prep|gei3=for pro|wo3=I v|jie3=solve v:resc|kai1=open cm|cm co|a .

%gra:   1|6|JCT 2|6|SUBJ 3|4|JCT 4|6|JCT 5|4|PREPO 6|0|ROOT 7|6|VR 8|6|JCT

9|8|COM 10|6|PUNCT



  1. Avia overusing the general classifier “ge” in Mandarin contexts where specific classifiers like “ke” and “zhang” are more appropriate.


*MOT: 这 是 什么 呀 ?

%mor:  pro|zhe4=this v:cop|shi4=is pro:wh|shen2me=what sfp|ya ?

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|OBJ 4|2|SFP 5|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   <宝宝 看见> [/] (.) 宝宝 看见 .

%mor:  n:relat|bao3&DIM=baby v|kan4jian4=see num|yi1=one cl|ge4

n|shu4=tree asp|le .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|6|CJCT 3|4|QUANT 4|5|MOD 5|2|OBJ 6|0|INCROOT 7|6|PUNCT

*MOT: 你 [/] 你 看见 一 个 树 了 ?

%mor:  pro|ni3=you v|kan4jian4=see num|yi1=one cl|ge4 n|shu4=tree asp|le ?

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|4|QUANT 4|6|CLASS 5|6|MOD 6|2|OBJ 7|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   宝宝 看见 一 个 树 了 .

%mor:  n:relat|bao3&DIM=baby v|kan4jian4=see num|yi1=one cl|ge4

n|shu4=tree asp|le .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|6|CJCT 3|4|QUANT 4|5|MOD 5|2|OBJ 6|0|INCROOT 7|6|PUNCT

*MOT: 你 看见 一 个 树 啦 ?

%mor:  pro|ni3=you v|kan4jian4=see num|yi1=one cl|ge4 n|shu4=tree sfp|la1


%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|4|QUANT 4|5|MOD 5|2|OBJ 6|2|SFP 7|2|PUNCT



*CHI:   宝宝 卡片 .

%mor:  n:relat|bao3&DIM=baby adv|hai2=still v|you3=have num|liang3=two

cl|ge4 n|ka3pian4=card .

%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|JCT 3|0|ROOT 4|3|PQ 5|6|MOD 6|3|OBJ 7|3|PUNCT

*MOT: 对 呀 .

%mor:  tag|dui4=correct sfp|ya .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|SFP 3|1|PUNCT



*MOT: 那 , 你们 骑 哪个 车 了 ?

%mor:  pro|na4=that cm|cm pro|ni3-PL=you v|qi2=ride_sit_astride

pro:wh|na3ge4=which n|che1=vehicle asp|le ?

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|4|SUBJ 3|4|SUBJ 4|0|ROOT 5|6|MOD 6|4|OBJ 7|4|OBJ 8|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   我们 骑 大 车 了 .

%mor:  pro|wo3-PL=I v|qi2=ride_sit_astride adj|da4=great n|che1=vehicle

asp|le .

*CHI:   我们 &那个 时候 , <那个 那个 > [//] (.) 那个 树枝 .

%mor:  pro|wo3-PL=I v|qi2=ride_sit_astride nom|de n|shi2hou4=time cm|cm

co|en1=okay pro|na4ge4=that v|you3=have cl|ge4 n|shu4zhi1=branch

prep|zai4=at n|di4=earth post|shang4=above .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|8|SUBJ 3|8|JCT 4|8|SUBJ 5|8|JCT 6|8|COM 7|8|SUBJ 8|0|ROOT

9|10|MOD 10|8|OBJ 11|8|JCT 12|13|MOD 13|11|PREPO 14|8|PUNCT

*CHI:   所以 我们 把 它 拿 开 了 .

%mor:  conj|suo3yi3=so pro|wo3-PL=I prep|ba3=object_marker pro|ta1=it

v|na2=hold v:resc|kai1=open asp|le .

%gra:   1|5|COM 2|5|SUBJ 3|5|JCT 4|3|PREPO 5|0|ROOT 6|5|VR 7|5|OBJ 8|5|PUNCT


  1. Avia producing Mandarin-like null object in English.


*FAT:   are you ready to catch ?

%mor:  cop|be&PRES pro:per|you adj|ready inf|to v|catch ?

%gra:   1|0|ROOT 2|1|PRED 3|2|PRED 4|5|INF 5|3|COMP 6|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   yup !

%mor:  co|yup !

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*FAT:   woo !

%mor:  co|woo !

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   &=laughs .

*FAT:   whoops , sorry .

%mor:  co|whoops cm|cm adj|sorry .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|LP 3|1|ENUM 4|1|PUNCT

*FAT:   I didn’t throw it to you that time .

%mor:  pro:sub|I mod|do&PAST~neg|not v|throw pro:per|it prep|to

pro:per|you pro:dem|that n|time .

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|4|AUX 3|2|NEG 4|0|ROOT 5|4|OBJ 6|4|JCT 7|6|POBJ 8|9|DET

9|7|OBJ 10|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   &=laughs .

*CHI:   I caught with my fingers .

%mor:  pro:sub|I v|catch&PAST prep|with det:poss|my n|finger-PL .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|JCT 4|5|MOD 5|3|POBJ 6|2|PUNCT



*FAT:   sorry I didn’t throw it far enough .

%mor:  adj|sorry pro:sub|I mod|do&PAST~neg|not v|throw pro:per|it adv|far

adv|enough .

%gra:   1|5|LINK 2|5|SUBJ 3|5|AUX 4|3|NEG 5|0|ROOT 6|5|OBJ 7|5|JCT 8|5|JCT


*CHI:   hey , throw to my hand .

%mor:  co|hey cm|cm v|throw prep|to det:poss|my n|hand .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|LP 3|1|ENUM 4|3|JCT 5|6|MOD 6|4|POBJ 7|1|PUNCT

*FAT:   I’ll try .

%mor:  pro:sub|I~mod|will v|try .

%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|AUX 3|0|ROOT 4|3|PUNCT


  1. Avia producing ba-sentences with a range of lexical verb phrases in Mandarin.


*CHI:   宝宝 大大 .

%mor:  pro|ni3=you v|kan4=look n:relat|bao3&DIM=baby v|ba3=hold

n|shou3=hand v|zhang1=stretch v:resc|de2=get adj|da4&DIM=great

nom|de .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|8|CJCT 3|6|SUBJ 4|6|JCT 5|6|SUBJ 6|2|OBJ 7|2|VR 8|0|INCROOT

9|8|POSS 10|8|PUNCT

*MOT: 啊 , 你 把 你 的 手 张 得 大大 的 , 是不是 啊 ?

%mor:  co|a cm|cm pro|ni3=you prep|ba3=object_marker pro|ni3=you poss|de

n|shou3=hand v|zhang1=stretch v:resc|de2=get adj|da4&DIM=great

nom|de cm|cm tag|shi4bu2shi4=right sfp|a1 ?

%gra:   1|4|COM 2|4|TOP 3|4|DET 4|0|INCROOT 5|8|SUBJ 6|8|JCT 7|8|SUBJ 8|4|PREPO

9|4|VR 10|4|PREPO 11|4|PREPO 12|4|PREPO 13|4|COM 14|4|SFP 15|4|PUNCT



*CHI:   [x 3] .

%mor:  adj|da4=great n|shan1=mountain v:aux|yao4=should

prep|ba3=object_marker adj|xiao3=small n|mao1=pussycat v|chi1=eat

v:resc|diao4=drop .

%gra:   1|2|MOD 2|7|SUBJ 3|7|SUBJ 4|7|JCT 5|6|MOD 6|4|PREPO 7|0|ROOT 8|7|VR


*MOT: 不 是 大 山 .

%mor:  neg|bu4=not v:cop|shi4=is adj|da4=great n|shan1=mountain .

%gra:   1|2|NEG 2|0|ROOT 3|4|MOD 4|2|OBJ 5|2|PUNCT

*MOT: 这 是 大海 .

%mor:  pro|zhe4=this v:cop|shi4=is n|da4hai3=open_sea .

%gra:   1|3|DET 2|3|MOD 3|0|INCROOT 4|3|PUNCT

*CHI:   大海 !

%mor:  n|da4hai3=open_sea v:aux|yao4=should prep|ba3=object_marker

adj|xiao3=small n|mao1=pussycat v|chi1=eat v:resc|diao4=drop sfp|la1


%gra:   1|6|SUBJ 2|6|JCT 3|6|JCT 4|5|MOD 5|3|PREPO 6|0|ROOT 7|6|VR 8|6|SFP




*MOT: 你 冷 吗 Child’s_Chinese_Name ?

%mor:  pro|ni3=you adj|leng3=cool sfp|ma n:prop|Child’s_Chinese_Name ?

%gra:   1|2|DET 2|0|INCROOT 3|2|SFP 4|2|COM 5|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   是 的 .

%mor:  v:cop|shi4=is nom|de .

%gra:   1|0|ROOT 2|1|PRED 3|1|PUNCT

*MOT: 你 冷 啦 ?

%mor:  pro|ni3=you adj|leng3=cool sfp|la1 ?

%gra:   1|2|DET 2|0|INCROOT 3|2|SFP 4|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   可是 可以 兜儿 !

%mor:  conj|ke3shi4=but pro|wo3=I v:aux|ke3yi3=may prep|ba3=object_marker

pro|wo3=I poss|de n|shou3=hand v|fang4=put prep|zai4=at pro|wo3=I

poss|de adj|xiao3=small n|dou1-DIA=pocket cl|li3 sfp|ya !

%gra:   1|8|COM 2|8|SUBJ 3|8|SUBJ 4|8|JCT 5|8|SUBJ 6|8|JCT 7|8|SUBJ 8|14|CJCT

9|8|JCT 10|9|PREPO 11|8|POSS 12|13|MOD 13|8|OBJ 14|0|INCROOT 15|14|SFP




*CHI:   妈妈 , 地方 (.) 干净 .

%mor:  n:relat|ma1&DIM=mother cm|cm pro|wo3=I adv|zhi3=only v:cop|shi4=is

prep|ba3=object_marker n|zui3=mouth post|li3=inside nom|de

adj|teng2=hurt nom|de n|di4fang1=place v|ca1=wipe

adj|gan1jing4=clean .

%gra:   1|13|SUBJ 2|13|JCT 3|5|SUBJ 4|5|JCT 5|2|ROOT 6|13|JCT 7|6|PREPO

8|13|SUBJ 9|13|JCT 10|13|JCT 11|12|MOD 12|13|SUBJ 13|0|ROOT 14|13|OBJ


*MOT: 嘴 里边儿 的 疼 的 地方 ?

%mor:  n|zui3=mouth post|li3bian1-DIA=interior poss|de adj|teng2=hurt

nom|de n|di4fang1=place ?

%gra:   1|6|MOD 2|6|MOD 3|2|POSS 4|6|MOD 5|6|MOD 6|0|INCROOT 7|6|PUNCT

*MOT: 我 看看 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I v|kan4&DIM=look .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|PUNCT

*MOT: 哪儿 [/] 哪儿 疼 了 ?

%mor:  pro:wh|na3-DIA=which v|teng2=hurt asp|le ?

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|OBJ 4|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   是 这儿 .

%mor:  v:cop|shi4=is post|zhe4&DIA=here .

%gra:   1|0|ROOT 2|1|PRED 3|1|PUNCT

%exp:   the child pointed inside her mouth .



*CHI:   你 别 把 这些 东西 给 忘 了 , 啊 !

%mor:  pro|ni3=you neg|bie2=dont prep|ba3=object_marker

quant|zhe4xie1=these n|dong1xi=thing prep|gei3=for v|wang4=forget

asp|le cm|cm co|a !

%gra:   1|2|DET 2|3|NEG 3|0|INCROOT 4|7|JCT 5|7|SUBJ 6|7|JCT 7|3|PREPO

8|3|PREPO 9|3|PREPO 10|3|COM 11|3|PUNCT

%exp:   the child pointed to a plastic bag .

*MOT: 哦 , <我 我> [/] 我 要 干吗 呀 那些 东西 ?

%mor:  co|o1=chant cm|cm pro|wo3=I v:aux|yao4=should adv:wh|gan4ma=why

sfp|ya quant|na3xie1=those n|dong1xi=thing ?

%gra:   1|2|COM 2|0|INCROOT 3|5|DET 4|5|AUX 5|2|OBJ 6|2|SFP 7|8|MOD 8|2|OBJ


*MOT: 是 要 干 什么 的 呀 ?

%mor:  v:cop|shi4=is v:aux|yao4=should v|gan4=do pro:wh|shen2me=what

nom|de sfp|ya ?

%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|JCT 3|0|ROOT 4|3|OBJ 5|3|POSS 6|3|SFP 7|3|PUNCT

*CHI:   那个 箱子 燕燕 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I v:aux|yao4=should prep|ba3=object_marker pro|na4ge4=that

adj|xiao3=small n|xiang1-NOM=box v|song4=deliver prep|gei3=for

n:name|yan4yan4 .

%gra:   1|7|SUBJ 2|7|JCT 3|7|JCT 4|3|PREPO 5|6|MOD 6|3|PREPO 7|0|ROOT 8|7|JCT

9|8|PREPO 10|7|PUNCT



*MOT: <不 能> [/] 不 能 动 那个 .

%mor:  neg|bu4=not v:aux|neng2=can v|dong4=move pro|na4ge4=that .

%gra:   1|2|NEG 2|3|AUX 3|0|ROOT 4|3|OBJ 5|3|PUNCT

*CHI:   可以 这个 方形 ?

%mor:  pro|wo3=I v:aux|ke3yi3=may prep|ba3=object_marker pro|zhe4ge4=this

n|fang1xing2=square v|jian3=cut_with_scissors v:dirc|xia4=go_down

v:dirc|lai2=come sfp|ma ?

%gra:   1|6|SUBJ 2|6|SUBJ 3|6|JCT 4|6|SUBJ 5|6|SUBJ 6|0|ROOT 7|6|VD 8|6|VD

9|6|SFP 10|6|PUNCT

*MOT: 嗯 , <不 行 , 不 能 剪> [>] 这个 .

%mor:  co|en1=okay cm|cm neg|bu4=not adj|xing2=be_all_right cm|cm

neg|bu4=not v:aux|neng2=can v|jian3=cut_with_scissors

pro|zhe4ge4=this .

%gra:   1|8|COM 2|8|SUBJ 3|8|JCT 4|8|SUBJ 5|8|JCT 6|7|NEG 7|8|AUX 8|0|ROOT

9|8|OBJ 10|8|PUNCT

*CHI:   <还有 这个 方形> [<] .

%mor:  adv|hai2you3=moreover pro|zhe4ge4=this n|fang1xing2=square .

%gra:   1|3|JCT 2|3|MOD 3|0|INCROOT 4|3|PUNCT


  1. Avia producing passives in Mandarin.


*CHI:   工作 < > [/] 鸟儿 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I poss|de n|gong1zuo4=work v:cop|shi4=is neg|bu4=not

v|rang4=allow n|niao3er2=bird prep|bei4=by v|da3=hit

adv|dao4=actually .

%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|MOD 3|9|SUBJ 4|9|SUBJ 5|6|NEG 6|9|JCT 7|9|SUBJ 8|9|JCT

9|0|ROOT 10|9|OBJ 11|9|PUNCT

*MOT: 哦 , 你 [/] 你 是 保护 鸟 的 啊 ?

%mor:  co|o1=chant cm|cm pro|ni3=you v:cop|shi4=is v|bao3hu4=protect

n|niao3=bird nom|de sfp|a1 ?

%gra:   1|6|COM 2|6|MOD 3|4|SUBJ 4|2|PREPO 5|6|MOD 6|0|INCROOT 7|6|POSS 8|6|SFP


*CHI:   是 .

%mor:  v:cop|shi4=is .

%gra:   1|0|ROOT 2|1|PUNCT



*MOT: 可是 你 一 接近 它们 , 它们 不 就 飞 走 了 吗 ?

%mor:  conj|ke3shi4=but pro|ni3=you adv|yi1=just_as v|jie1jin4=approach

pro|ta1-PL=it cm|cm pro|ta1-PL=it neg|bu4=not adv|jiu4=just

v:resc|fei1=fly_away v:dirc|zou3=go_away asp|le sfp|ma ?

%gra:   1|4|COM 2|4|SUBJ 3|4|JCT 4|0|ROOT 5|4|OBJ 6|4|JCT 7|12|DET 8|12|NEG

9|11|JCT 10|9|VR 11|8|VD 12|6|PREPO 13|4|SFP 14|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   没 事儿 .

%mor:  neg|mei2=not n|shi4-DIA=thing .

%gra:   1|2|NEG 2|0|INCROOT 3|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   鸟儿 .

%mor:  adj|gao1=tall nom|de n|niao3er2=bird neg|bu4=not v:aux|hui4=will

prep|bei4=by v|tan2=pluck_play_musical_instrument

v:dirc|zou3=go_away .

%gra:   1|3|MOD 2|3|MOD 3|6|TOP 4|5|NEG 5|6|AUX 6|0|INCROOT 7|6|PREPO 8|6|VD



  1. Avia producing relative clauses in Mandarin with correct and incorrect word order.


*CHI:   我 是 保护 鸟儿 的 姐姐 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I v:cop|shi4=is v|bao3hu4=protect n|niao3er2=bird poss|de

n:relat|jie3&DIM=elder_sister .

%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|JCT 3|0|ROOT 4|3|OBJ 5|3|POSS 6|3|OBJ 7|3|PUNCT

*MOT: 你 是 保护 鸟儿 的 姐姐 啊 ?

%mor:  pro|ni3=you v:cop|shi4=is v|bao3hu4=protect n|niao3er2=bird poss|de

n:relat|jie3&DIM=elder_sister co|a ?

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|3|OBJ 5|3|POSS 6|3|OBJ 7|3|COM 8|3|PUNCT



*CHI:   但是 我 希 [/] 希望 鸟儿 能 上 别的 地方 .

%mor:  conj|dan4shi4=but pro|wo3=I v|xi1wang4=hope n|niao3er2=bird

v:aux|neng2=can v:dirc|shang4=go_up pro|bie2de=other

n|di4fang1=place .

%gra:   1|3|COM 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|5|MOD 5|3|OBJ 6|5|VD 7|8|MOD 8|5|VD


*CHI:   小朋友 地方 !

%mor:  v:dirc|shang4=go_up n|xiao3peng2you3=little_child v|da3=hit

neg|bu4=not asp|zhe poss|de n|di4fang1=place neg|bu4=not

adv|jiu4=just v:resc|wan2=finish asp|le adv|bei=just !

%gra:   1|3|COM 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|5|NEG 5|3|OBJ 6|11|MOD 7|11|SUBJ 8|9|NEG

9|11|JCT 10|9|VR 11|3|OBJ 12|13|JCT 13|3|PUNCT

*MOT: 嗯 .

%mor:  co|en1=okay .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*MOT: xxx , 鸟 飞 到 小朋友 <打 不 着> [/] 打 不 着 的 地方 就 行 了 , 哈 !

%mor:  cm|cm n|niao3=bird v:resc|fei1=fly_away v:resc|dao4=arrive

n|xiao3peng2you3=little_child v|da3=hit neg|bu4=not asp|zhe poss|de

n|di4fang1=place adv|jiu4=just adj|xing2=be_all_right asp|le cm|cm

co|ha1=ha !

%gra:   1|6|COM 2|6|SUBJ 3|6|SUBJ 4|6|JCT 5|6|SUBJ 6|14|CJCT 7|8|NEG 8|6|OBJ

9|6|POSS 10|6|OBJ 11|12|JCT 12|6|OBJ 13|6|OBJ 14|0|INCROOT 15|14|COM




*CHI:   我 就 问 他们 是 谁 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I adv|jiu4=just v|wen4=ask pro|ta1-PL=he v:cop|shi4=is

pro:wh|shei2=who .

%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|JCT 3|0|ROOT 4|5|SUBJ 5|3|OBJ 6|3|OBJ 7|3|PUNCT

*MOT: 问 [/] 问 谁 啊 ?

%mor:  v|wen4=ask pro:wh|shei2=who sfp|a1 ?

%gra:   1|0|ROOT 2|1|OBJ 3|1|SFP 4|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   小朋友 鸟儿 .

%mor:  v|wen4=ask n|xiao3peng2you3=little_child v|da3=hit nom|de

n|niao3er2=bird v:cop|shi4=is pro:wh|shei2=who .

%gra:   1|2|MOD 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|5|MOD 5|3|OBJ 6|3|ROOT 7|6|PRED 8|3|PUNCT

*MOT: 那 你 要 问 他们 啥 呀 ?

%mor:  pro|na4=that pro|ni3=you v:aux|yao4=should v|wen4=ask pro|ta1-PL=he

pro:wh|sha2=what sfp|ya ?

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|4|SUBJ 3|4|AUX 4|0|ROOT 5|6|DET 6|4|OBJ 7|4|SFP 8|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   我 问 他们 , 能 不 能 <不 要 再> [/] 不 要 再 用 弹弓 打 小 鸟儿 了 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I v|wen4=ask pro|ta1-PL=he cm|cm v:aux|neng2=can

neg|bu4=not v:aux|neng2=can neg|bu4=not v:aux|yao4=should

adv|zai4=again v|yong4=use n|dan4gong1=slingshot v|da3=hit

adj|xiao3=small n|niao3er2=bird asp|le .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|11|SUBJ 3|2|OBJ 4|11|JCT 5|6|AUX 6|7|NEG 7|11|SUBJ 8|11|JCT

9|11|AUX 10|11|JCT 11|0|ROOT 12|13|SUBJ 13|11|SRL 14|15|MOD 15|13|OBJ

16|11|OBJ 17|11|PUNCT


  1. Avia producing get-passives in English


*CHI:   there are rocks to spin around the earth into the little rocks

            got mixed together around the earth .

%mor:  adv|there cop|be&PRES v|rock-3S prep|to n|spin prep|around

det:art|the n|earth prep|into det:art|the adj|little n|rock-PL

aux|get&PAST part|mix-PASTP adv|together prep|around det:art|the

n|earth .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|3|JCT 5|4|POBJ 6|5|NJCT 7|8|DET 8|6|POBJ

9|14|LINK 10|12|DET 11|12|MOD 12|14|SUBJ 13|14|AUX 14|3|CJCT 15|14|JCT

16|14|JCT 17|18|DET 18|16|POBJ 19|3|PUNCT

*CHI:   and then make another baby moon instead .

%mor:  coord|and adv:tem|then v|make qn|another n|baby n|moon adv|instead


%gra:   1|3|LINK 2|3|JCT 3|0|ROOT 4|6|QUANT 5|6|MOD 6|3|OBJ 7|3|JCT 8|3|PUNCT

*FAT:   well , this is an idea people have about where the moon came from .

%mor:  co|well cm|cm pro:dem|this cop|be&3S det:art|a n|idea n|person&PL

v|have adv|about pro:rel|where det:art|the n|moon v|come&PAST

prep|from .

%gra:   1|4|COM 2|1|LP 3|4|SUBJ 4|8|LINK 5|7|DET 6|7|MOD 7|8|SUBJ 8|0|ROOT

9|8|JCT 10|13|LINK 11|12|DET 12|13|SUBJ 13|9|CMOD 14|13|JCT 15|8|PUNCT



*FAT:   oh , they need to be protected from the rain ?

%mor:  co|oh cm|cm pro:sub|they v|need inf|to aux|be part|protect-PASTP

prep|from det:art|the n|rain ?

%gra:   1|4|COM 2|1|LP 3|4|SUBJ 4|0|ROOT 5|7|INF 6|7|AUX 7|4|COMP 8|7|JCT

9|10|DET 10|8|POBJ 11|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   yeah .

%mor:  co|yeah .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*FAT:   I see .

%mor:  pro:sub|I v|see .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|PUNCT

*FAT:   I don’t know it was raining .

%mor:  pro:sub|I mod|do~neg|not v|know pro:per|it aux|be&PAST&13S

part|rain-PRESP .

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|4|AUX 3|2|NEG 4|0|ROOT 5|7|SUBJ 6|7|AUX 7|4|COMP 8|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   but I think they’re gonna [: going to] stay inside .

%mor:  conj|but pro:sub|I v|think pro:sub|they~aux|be&PRES part|go-PRESP

inf|to cop|stay adv|inside .

%gra:   1|3|LINK 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|6|SUBJ 5|6|AUX 6|3|COMP 7|8|INF 8|6|COMP

9|8|JCT 10|3|PUNCT

*CHI:   cause they don’t have a umbrella at home .

%mor:  n|cause pro:sub|they mod|do~neg|not v|have det:art|a n|umbrella

prep|at n|home .

%gra:   1|5|LINK 2|5|SUBJ 3|5|AUX 4|3|NEG 5|0|ROOT 6|7|DET 7|5|OBJ 8|5|JCT

9|8|POBJ 10|5|PUNCT

*FAT:   ugh , did they forget to bring their umbrella ?

%mor:  co|ugh cm|cm v|do&PAST pro:sub|they v|forget inf|to v|bring

det:poss|their n|umbrella ?

%gra:   1|5|COM 2|1|LP 3|1|ENUM 4|5|SUBJ 5|0|ROOT 6|7|INF 7|5|COMP 8|9|MOD

9|7|OBJ 10|5|PUNCT

*CHI:   yeah .

%mor:  co|yeah .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   I think they’re gonna [: going to] stay inside home , not get burned up .

%mor:  pro:sub|I v|think pro:sub|they~aux|be&PRES part|go-PRESP inf|to

cop|stay adj|inside adv|home cm|cm neg|not v|get v|burn-PAST adv|up


%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|5|SUBJ 4|5|AUX 5|2|COMP 6|7|INF 7|5|COMP 8|7|PRED

9|7|JCT 10|7|LP 11|12|NEG 12|7|PRED 13|12|PRED 14|13|JCT 15|2|PUNCT


  1. Avia producing English subject relative clauses


*CHI:   this is the [/] the wheel that spins .

%mor:  pro:dem|this cop|be&3S det:art|the n|wheel pro:rel|that n|spin-PL .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|4|DET 4|2|PRED 5|6|LINK 6|4|CMOD 7|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   and some of them needs to slow down so they can stop .

%mor:  coord|and qn|some prep|of pro:obj|them v|need-3S inf|to v|slow

prep|down co|so pro:sub|they mod|can v|stop .

%gra:   1|5|LINK 2|5|SUBJ 3|2|NJCT 4|3|POBJ 5|0|ROOT 6|7|INF 7|5|COMP 8|7|JCT

9|12|COM 10|12|SUBJ 11|12|AUX 12|5|CJCT 13|5|PUNCT



*FAT:   oh , the airplane is going to drive into the airport through the

gate ?

%mor:  co|oh cm|cm det:art|the n|airplane aux|be&3S part|go-PRESP prep|to

n|drive prep|into det:art|the n|airport adj|through det:art|the

n|gate ?

%gra:   1|6|COM 2|1|LP 3|4|DET 4|6|SUBJ 5|6|AUX 6|0|ROOT 7|6|JCT 8|7|POBJ

9|6|JCT 10|11|DET 11|14|MOD 12|14|MOD 13|14|DET 14|9|POBJ 15|6|PUNCT

*CHI:   yeah .

%mor:  co|yeah .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   and there’s the fence which keeps the airplane from getting into the

            airport without the door .

%mor:  coord|and pro:exist|there~cop|be&3S det:art|the n|fence

pro:rel|which v|keep-3S det:art|the n|airplane prep|from

n:gerund|get-PRESP prep|into det:art|the n|airport prep|without

det:art|the n|door .

%gra:   1|3|LINK 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|5|DET 5|3|PRED 6|7|LINK 7|5|CMOD 8|9|DET

9|7|OBJ 10|7|JCT 11|10|POBJ 12|11|JCT 13|14|DET 14|12|POBJ 15|11|JCT

16|17|DET 17|15|POBJ 18|3|PUNCT



  1. Winston producing ba-construction in Mandarin


*LAN:   <它 被 谁> [<] 弄 哭 的 呀 ?

%mor:  pro|ta1=it prep|bei4=by pro:wh|shei2=who v|nong4=make v|ku1=cry

nom|de sfp|ya ?

%gra:   1|5|SUBJ 2|5|JCT 3|2|PREPO 4|2|PREPO 5|0|ROOT 6|5|POSS 7|5|SFP


*LAN:   是 不 是 Winston@s:eng 呐 ?

%mor:  v:cop|shi4=is neg|bu4=not v:cop|shi4=is L2|Winston sfp|na ?

%gra:   1|0|ROOT 2|3|NEG 3|1|ROOT 4|1|PRED 5|1|SFP 6|1|PUNCT

*CHI:   , .

%mor:  v:cop|shi4=is nom|de cm|cm pro|wo3=I prep|ba3=object_marker

pro|ta1=it v|nong4=make v|ku1=cry asp|le .

%gra:   1|8|SUBJ 2|1|PRED 3|8|JCT 4|8|SUBJ 5|8|JCT 6|7|SUBJ 7|5|PREPO 8|0|ROOT

9|8|OBJ 10|8|PUNCT



*SOP:   嗯 , 要 怎么办 ?

%mor:  co|en1=okay cm|cm v:aux|yao4=should adv:wh|zen3meban4=how ?

%gra:   1|2|COM 2|0|INCROOT 3|4|AUX 4|2|OBJ 5|2|PUNCT

*SOP:   你 告诉 George@s:eng 让 George@s:eng 来 做 .

%mor:  pro|ni3=you v|gao4su4=tell L2|George v|rang4=allow L2|George

v:dirc|lai2=come v|zuo4=make .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|4|SUBJ 3|4|JCT 4|0|ROOT 5|4|OBJ 6|5|VD 7|5|VD 8|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   hmm , 把 它 要 看 .

%mor:  co|hmm cm|cm prep|ba3=object_marker pro|ta1=it v:aux|yao4=should

v|kan4=look .

%gra:   1|2|COM 2|6|SUBJ 3|6|JCT 4|6|SUBJ 5|6|AUX 6|0|ROOT 7|6|PUNCT

*CHI:   然后 < > [//] .

%mor:  adv|ran2hou4=thereupon v:aux|yao4=should prep|ba3=object_marker

pro|ta1=it v|nong4=make v:dirc|shang4=go_up v:dirc|lai2=come .

%gra:   1|5|JCT 2|5|JCT 3|5|JCT 4|3|PREPO 5|0|ROOT 6|5|VD 7|5|VD 8|5|PUNCT

*CHI:   要 把 它 弄 上 这里 啊 .

%mor:  v:aux|yao4=should prep|ba3=object_marker pro|ta1=it v|nong4=make

v:dirc|shang4=go_up post|zhe4li3=here co|a .

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|4|JCT 3|2|PREPO 4|0|ROOT 5|4|VD 6|4|VD 7|4|COM 8|4|PUNCT



*RIK:    对 呀 , 那 我们 还 要 什么 颜色 呢 ?

%mor:  tag|dui4=correct sfp|ya cm|cm pro|na4=that pro|wo3-PL=I

adv|hai2=still v:aux|yao4=should pro:wh|shen2me=what n|yan2se4=color

sfp|ne ?

%gra:   1|9|MOD 2|1|SFP 3|9|MOD 4|7|DET 5|7|SUBJ 6|7|JCT 7|9|AUX 8|9|MOD

9|0|INCROOT 10|9|SFP 11|9|PUNCT

*CHI:   hmm , 橙色 这里 .

%mor:  co|hmm cm|cm pro|wo3=I v:aux|xiang3=want pro|ni3=you

prep|ba3=object_marker pro|zhe4=this cl|ge4

adj|cheng2se4=orange_color nom|de v|fang4=put v:dirc|jin4=enter

v:dirc|qu4=go post|zhe4li3=here .

%gra:   1|11|COM 2|11|JCT 3|11|SUBJ 4|11|JCT 5|11|SUBJ 6|11|JCT 7|6|PREPO

8|11|SUBJ 9|11|SUBJ 10|11|JCT 11|0|ROOT 12|11|VD 13|11|VD 14|11|VD




*MOT: 你 真的 不 知道 爸爸 喜欢 吃 什么 吗 ?

%mor:  pro|ni3=you adv|zhen1-ISH=really neg|bu4=not v|zhi1dao4=know

n:relat|ba4&DIM=father v|xi3huan1=like v|chi1=eat

pro:wh|shen2me=what sfp|ma ?

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|4|JCT 3|4|NEG 4|0|ROOT 5|7|SUBJ 6|7|JCT 7|4|OBJ 8|4|OBJ

9|4|SFP 10|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   所有 东西 .

%mor:  pro|wo3=I v:aux|xiang3=want v|ba3=hold v|suo3you3=own nom|de

n|dong1xi=thing adv|dou1=all v|mai3=buy v:dirc|hui2=back

v:dirc|qu4=go .

%gra:   1|3|SUBJ 2|3|AUX 3|4|SUBJ 4|8|SUBJ 5|8|JCT 6|8|SUBJ 7|8|JCT 8|0|ROOT

9|8|VD 10|8|VD 11|8|PUNCT

*MAG: 不 够 钱 .

%mor:  neg|bu4=not adv|gou4=enough n|qian2=money .

%gra:   1|3|NEG 2|3|JCT 3|0|INCROOT 4|3|PUNCT

*SOP:   对 呀 , 我们 钱 不 够 买 所有 的 东西 .

%mor:  tag|dui4=correct sfp|ya cm|cm pro|wo3-PL=I n|qian2=money

neg|bu4=not adv|gou4=enough v|mai3=buy v|suo3you3=own nom|de

n|dong1xi=thing .

%gra:   1|5|MOD 2|1|SFP 3|5|MOD 4|5|MOD 5|9|SUBJ 6|9|JCT 7|8|JCT 8|9|JCT

9|0|ROOT 10|11|MOD 11|9|OBJ 12|9|PUNCT


  1. Winston producing zeong-construction in Cantonese

*MAG: 哦 , 你 baby@s:eng 嘅4 時候 鍾意 將 第二 啲 嘢 整 壞 aa4 ?

%mor:  co|o4=acknowledgement cm|cm pro|nei5=you L2|baby stprt|ge3

n|si4hau6=point_of_time v|+v|zung1+n|ji3=like

prep|zoeng1=by_means_of det|dai6ji6=another cl|di1=some n|je5=thing

v|zing2=make adj|waai6=bad sfp|aa4 ?

*CHI:   jaa3 , < > [//] 鍾意 裡便 4 .

%mor:  co|hai6jaa3=true cm|cm pro|ngo5=I v|+v|zung1+n|ji3=like

prep|zoeng1=by_means_of n|syu1=book loc|leoi5bin6=inside stprt|ge3

n|je5=thing v|zing2=make adj|waai6=bad sfp|aa3 .


  1. Winston producing aspect marker zo2, and sentence-final particle ge2 in Cantonese

*MOT: 係jaa3 , 媽媽 想 問 吓5 你 點解 Molly@s:eng 要 擔 住 把 遮 啊 ?

%mor:  co|hai6jaa3=true cm|cm n|maa1&DIM=mother v:aux|soeng2=want

v|man6=ask asp|haa5=tentative pro|nei5=you wh|dim2gaai2=why L2|Molly

v:aux|jiu3=should v|daam1=carry asp|zyu6=continuous cl|baa2=cl

n|ze1=umbrella sfp|aa3 ?

*CHI:   點解 我哋 ?

%mor:  wh|dim2gaai2=why pro|ngo5-PL=I v|mou5=not_having asp|zo2=perfective

cl|baa2=cl n|ze1=umbrella sfp|ge2 ?

*CHI:   噢 , 冇 .

%mor:  co|ou3=oh cm|cm v|mou5=not_having .

*MOT: 可能 阿姨 攞 咗 返 屋企 啊 .

%mor:  adj|ho2nang4=possible FAM#n|ji1=aunt v|lo2=take asp|zo2=perfective

v|faan1=go_back n|uk1kei2=home sfp|aa3 .


  1. Winston producing wh-questions


*CHI:   what [/] what snacks do they have sometimes ?

%mor:  pro:int|what n|snack-PL mod|do pro:sub|they aux|have adv|sometimes


%gra:   1|2|MOD 2|6|SUBJ 3|6|AUX 4|6|SUBJ 5|6|AUX 6|0|ROOT 7|6|PUNCT

*KAY:   &=laughs .

*MOT: so what do they eat ?

%mor:  adv|so pro:int|what mod|do pro:sub|they v|eat ?

%gra:   1|5|JCT 2|5|LINK 3|5|AUX 4|5|SUBJ 5|0|ROOT 6|5|PUNCT

*CHI:   &um snacks .

%mor:  n|snack-PL .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT



*CHI:   who [/] who had an accident ?

%mor:  pro:rel|who v|have&PAST det:art|a n|accident ?

%gra:   1|2|LINK 2|0|ROOT 3|4|DET 4|2|OBJ 5|2|PUNCT

*MAG: Zoe .

%mor:  n:prop|Zoe .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*MAG: my legs hurt .

%mor:  det:poss|my n|leg-PL v|hurt&ZERO .

%gra:   1|2|MOD 2|3|SUBJ 3|0|ROOT 4|3|PUNCT



*CHI:   (o)kay who can drive ?

%mor:  co|okay pro:int|who mod|can v|drive ?

%gra:   1|4|COM 2|4|SUBJ 3|4|AUX 4|0|ROOT 5|4|PUNCT

*SOP:   okay where do you wanna [: want to] go ?

%mor:  co|okay pro:rel|where mod|do pro:per|you v|want inf|to v|go ?

%gra:   1|5|COM 2|5|LINK 3|5|AUX 4|5|SUBJ 5|0|ROOT 6|7|INF 7|5|COMP 8|5|PUNCT

*CHI:   why’s the car not moving ?

%mor:  pro:rel|why~cop|be&3S det:art|the n|car neg|not part|move-PRESP ?

%gra:   1|2|LINK 2|0|ROOT 3|4|DET 4|2|PRED 5|4|NEG 6|4|XMOD 7|2|PUNCT



*CHI:   where are Peppa and George ?

%mor:  pro:rel|where aux|be&PRES n:prop|Peppa coord|and n:prop|George ?

%gra:   1|2|LINK 2|0|ROOT 3|2|PRED 4|2|CONJ 5|4|COORD 6|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   I want you to grab the light and [/] and then close the light .

%mor:  pro:sub|I v|want pro:per|you inf|to v|grab det:art|the n|light

            coord|and adv:tem|then v|close det:art|the n|light .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|5|SUBJ 4|5|INF 5|2|COMP 6|7|DET 7|5|OBJ 8|5|CONJ

            9|10|JCT 10|8|COORD 11|12|DET 12|10|OBJ 13|2|PUNCT



*CHI:   I kiss you a lot .

%mor:  pro:sub|I v|kiss pro:per|you det:art|a n|lot .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|2|OBJ2 4|5|DET 5|2|OBJ 6|2|PUNCT

*SOP:   yeah .

%mor:  co|yeah .

%gra:   1|0|INCROOT 2|1|PUNCT

*SOP:   it’s a good memory .

%mor:  pro:per|it~cop|be&3S det:art|a adj|good n|memory .

%gra:   1|2|SUBJ 2|0|ROOT 3|5|DET 4|5|MOD 5|2|PRED 6|2|PUNCT

*CHI:   why did I kiss you a lot ?

%mor:  pro:rel|why mod|do&PAST pro:sub|I v|kiss pro:per|you det:art|a

            n|lot ?

%gra:   1|4|LINK 2|4|AUX 3|4|SUBJ 4|0|ROOT 5|4|OBJ2 6|7|DET 7|4|OBJ 8|4|PUNCT


  1. Winston producing a passive in Mandarin

*MOT: 它 被 谁 带 走 了 ?

%mor:  pro|ta1=it prep|bei4=by pro:wh|shei2=who v|dai4=bring

            v:dirc|zou3=go_away asp|le ?

%gra:   1|4|SUBJ 2|4|JCT 3|2|PREPO 4|0|ROOT 5|4|VD 6|4|VD 7|4|PUNCT

*CHI:   &hmm , 老爹 [/] 老爹狗 xxx truck@s:eng .

%mor:  cm|cm n|lao3die1gou3=cartoon_character poss|de L2|truck

            prep|bei4=by v|tuo1=pull v:dirc|zou3=go_away asp|le .

%gra:   1|2|MOD 2|6|SUBJ 3|2|POSS 4|6|JCT 5|6|JCT 6|0|ROOT 7|6|VD 8|6|VD 9|6|PUNCT


  1. Winston producing a long passive in Cantonese

*LAN:   點解 一 個 火車 唔 見 咗 嘅 ?

%mor:  wh|dim2gaai2=why num|jat1=one cl|go3=cl n|fo2ce1=train

            adv:neg|m4=not v|gin3=see asp|zo2=perfective sfp|ge2 ?

*KAY:   去 咗 邊 啊 ?

%mor:  v|heoi3=go asp|zo2=perfective dem|bin1=which sfp|aa3 ?

*CHI:   <係 佢> [//] +/.

%mor:  +/.

*LAN:   去 咗 邊度 啊 ?

%mor:  v|heoi3=go asp|zo2=perfective wh|bin1dou6=where sfp|aa3 ?

*CHI:   +, (.) .

%mor:  v|hai6=be prep|bei2=passive pro|keoi5=he v|tau1=steal

            asp|zo2=perfective v|zau2=run asp|zo2=perfective .

*LAN:   邊個 ?

%mor:  wh|bin1go3=who ?

*LAN:   咩 事 ?

%mor:  wh|me1=what n|si6=matter ?

*LAN:   發生 咩 事 ?

%mor:  v|+v|faat3+v|sang1=occur wh|me1=what n|si6=matter ?

*CHI:   <係 係> [/] 係 哩 [//] 你 偷 走 咗 喇 嘛 .

%mor:  v|hai6=be pro|nei5=you v|tau1=steal v|zau2=run asp|zo2=perfective

            sfp|laa3=persuasive sfp|maa3 .


  1. Winston producing a subject relative clause in Cantonese

*CHI:   <自己 [?] 哩 [/] 哩 個 有 電池 嘅4 火> [//] 哩 啲 係 有 電池 嘅4 火車 嗎 ?

%mor:  dem|lei1=this cl|di1=some v|hai6=be v|jau5=have n|din6ci4=battery

            stprt|ge3 n|fo2ce1=train sfp|maa3 ?

*KAY:   唔 係 啊 .

%mor:  adv:neg|m4=not v|hai6=be sfp|aa3 .

*CHI:   我哋 屋企 電池 4 火車 .

%mor:  pro|ngo5-PL=I n|uk1kei2=home v|jau5=have n|din6ci4=battery

            stprt|ge3 n|fo2ce1=train adv:neg|mou2=not_have asp|zo2=perfective

            sfp|laa3=persuasive .